Why Umar bin Abdul Aziz is considered as the fifth Khalifa?

No doubt, His reign was revival of Khilafat-i-Rashideen. Umar bin Abdul Aziz stands out as a bright and noble exception amidst the godless, greedy and self-seeking rulers of the house of Umayya.
He is considered as fifth khalifa in the sense that he adopted the same pattern of government as it was previously adopted by the Khalifas.

  •        He adopted policy of equality and justice.
  •        Public welfare was was him main duty.
  •        His tax structure was same as it was adopted by the Holy Prophet (PBUH). Zakat, Kharaj, Jizya, Ushr etc.
  •       he reconciled Mawalis.
  •       He adopted policy of toleration and justice towards non-Muslim.
  •       He restored the spirit of Orthodox Khilafat and adopted democratic spirit.
  •       He re-established Consultative System.
  •        Treated Bayt-al-mall as purely public treasury.

related notes